Saidha S, Bell J, Harold S, Belisario JM, Hawe E, Shao Q, Wyse K, Maiese EM. Systematic literature review of immunoglobulin trends for anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies in multiple sclerosis. Neurol Sci. 2023 May;44(5):1515-32. doi: 10.1007/s10072-022-06582-y

OBJECTIVE: To explore changes in immunoglobulin (Ig) levels for people with relapsing-multiple sclerosis (RMS) treated with ocrelizumab or ofatumumab and the relationship between Ig levels and infections.

METHODS: A systematic literature review (SLR) was conducted to identify clinical trials and real-world evidence (RWE) studies on Ig levels over time and studies on associations with infections for ocrelizumab and ofatumumab for people with RMS through 10 September 2021. Searches were conducted in Embase, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, trial registries, and recent conference abstracts.

RESULTS: Of 1,580 articles identifed, 30 reporting on 11 trials and 5 RWE studies were included. Ocrelizumab trials (n=4) had 24–336 weeks of follow-up and reported decreasing Ig G (IgG) levels, while RWE (n=5) had 52–78 weeks of follow-up and reported IgG to be stable or decrease only slightly. IgG levels were stable in ofatumumab trials (n=5; 104–168 weeks of follow-up), but no RWE or longer-term studies were identifed. No apparent association between decreased Ig levels and infections was observed during ofatumumab treatment (ASCLEPIOS I/II), while for ocrelizumab, the only data on apparent associations between decreased IgG levels and serious infection rates were for a pooled population of people with RMS or primary progressive MS.

CONCLUSION: Decreasing IgG levels have been correlated with increased infection risk over time. IgG levels appeared to decrease over time in ocrelizumab trials but remained relatively stable over time in ofatumumab trials. Additional research is needed to understand diferences between ocrelizumab and ofatumumab and identify people at risk of decreasing IgG levels and infection.

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