Yee KS, Chirila C, Davenport E, Mladsi D, Barnett C, Kronenberger WG. A post hoc analysis of Projected Retained Ability Scores (PRAS) for the longitudinal assessment of cognitive functioning in patients with neuronopathic mucopolysaccharidosis II receiving intrathecal idursulfase-IT. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2023 Nov 2;18(1):343. doi: 10.1186/s13023-023-02957-2

BACKGROUND: Norm-based scores used to assess cognitive ability have clinical value when describing functioning of patients with neuronopathic disorders compared with unaffected, same-age peers. However, they have limitations when used to assess change in cognitive ability between two timepoints, especially in children with severe cognitive decline. Calculation of Projected Retained Ability Scores (PRAS) is a novel method developed to characterize absolute change in norm-based ability test scores. In this analysis, PRAS were calculated post hoc for children with mucopolysaccharidosis II (MPS II; Hunter syndrome) and early cognitive impairment in a 52-week phase 2/3 randomized controlled trial (RCT) and its extension study of intrathecal idursulfase (idursulfase-IT). Patients completing the first year of the extension after receiving idursulfase-IT in the RCT and extension (n = 32 of 34 enrolled) or the extension only (n = 15 of 15 enrolled) were categorized according to changes in Differential Ability Scales, Second Edition, General Conceptual Ability (DAS-II GCA) scores and PRAS at 1 and 2 years. Analyses were conducted in the overall population and a subpopulation aged < 6 years at baseline (idursulfase-IT in the RCT and extension [n = 27] and extension only [n = 12]).

RESULTS: PRAS methodology differentiated patients with decreases in DAS-II GCA scores into three separate categories reflecting below-average cognitive growth rates, plateauing cognitive development, and deteriorating cognitive functioning. After 1 year in the RCT, 72.4% of patients who initiated idursulfase-IT had above-average or average cognitive growth rates in DAS-II GCA scores compared with 53.3% of those who did not receive idursulfase-IT; 6.9% versus 20.0% experienced deteriorating cognitive functioning. Similar results were seen in children aged < 6 years: 76% (idursulfase-IT group) versus 50% (no idursulfase-IT) had above-average or average cognitive growth rates in DAS-II GCA scores; 4% versus 17% had deteriorating cognitive functioning. The difference in the distributions of cognitive categories at 1 year in children aged < 6 years was significant (p = 0.048). At 2 years, the proportions of patients in different cognitive categories were more similar between treatment groups.

CONCLUSIONS: PRAS methodology may help to differentiate changes in cognitive development in MPS II, and therefore may represent a valuable addition to existing approaches for interpreting changes in cognitive scores over time.

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