Fortuny J, Kogevinas M, Chang-Claude J, Gonzalez CA, Hours M, Jockel KH, Bolm-Audorff U, Lynge E, 't Mannetje A, Porru S, Ranft U, Serra C, Tzonou A, Wahrendorf J, Boffetta P. Tobacco, occupation and non-transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder: an international case-control study. Int J Cancer. 1999 Jan 5;80(1):44-6. doi:;2-8">10.1002/(sici)1097-0215(19990105)80:1<44::aid-ijc9>;2-8

Transitional-cell carcinoma is the dominant histological type of malignant tumors of the urinary bladder. There is limited information on risk factors for non-transitional-cell carcinoma (NTCC) of the bladder. We used data from 9 case-control studies on bladder cancer from 6 European countries to examine the association between NTCC, tobacco smoking and occupation. Information on 146 cases diagnosed with NTCC were matched by age, gender and study center to 727 non-cancer population or hospital controls and also with 722 transitional-cell-bladder-cancer controls. Lifetime smoking and occupational history were evaluated. A statistically significant excess risk for NTCC was observed for current smoking [odds ratio (OR) = 3.61, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.08-6.28]. The risk increased with higher tobacco consumption (OR for highest tertile of pack-years = 7.01, 95% CI 3.60-13.66). The risks were higher for squamous-cell carcinomas than for other types of NTCC. Among major occupational groups, a significant excess risk was seen for field-crop and vegetable-farm workers (OR = 2.06, 95% CI 1.03-4.10). These results indicate that NTCC of the bladder is associated with smoking and specific occupations. The risk pattern seems to differ, in part, from that observed for transitional-cell carcinoma of the bladder.

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