Krege JH, Gilsenan AW, Komacko JL, Kellier-Steele N. Teriparatide and osteosarcoma risk: history, science, elimination of boxed warning, and other label updates. J Bone Miner Res. 2022 Aug 14;6(9):e10665. doi: 10.1002/jbm4.10665

The phase 3 trials of the bone anabolic drug teriparatide were prematurely terminated because of a preclinical finding of osteosarcoma in rats treated with high doses of teriparatide for near lifetime. Even so, results from these and subsequent clinical trials showed efficacy and tolerability. Based on the phase 3 results and additional preclinical investigations, Forteo (teriparatide) was approved for use in the United States with an indication for the treatment of osteoporosis in patients at high risk for fracture, a boxed warning regarding potential risk of osteosarcoma, a 2-year lifetime limitation of use, other risk mitigations, and a requirement to assess for risk of osteosarcoma in humans treated with teriparatide. Subsequent investigations included five real-world studies directed at assessing a connection between teriparatide and osteosarcoma risk in humans. The early studies did not identify an increased risk of osteosarcoma but were inadequate to sufficiently characterize risk, given the low incidence of this rare form of bone cancer. Learning from these efforts, two studies were undertaken using claims data to identify large cohorts of patients treated with teriparatide and assess whether these patients were found to have osteosarcoma by linking pharmacy claims data with data from cancer registries. These studies showed no increase in osteosarcoma in patients using teriparatide compared with unexposed groups, as well as to the expected population-based background incidence of the disease. Based on this real-world evidence and the totality of data collected from postmarketing use and other clinical investigations, the label was updated in 2020. The changes included addition of information from large observational studies using real-world evidence, removal of the boxed warning, and a revision of the 2-year lifetime limitation. Thus, observational studies with large sample sizes using real-world data can provide supportive evidence to facilitate regulatory decisions including the elimination of a boxed warning. © 2022 Eli Lilly and Company. JBMR Plus published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Society for Bone and Mineral Research

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