Regan AK, Wesselink AK, Wang TR, Savitz DA, Yland JJ, Rothman KJ, Hatch EE, Wise LA. Risk of miscarriage in relation to seasonal influenza vaccination before or during pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol. 2023 Sep 1;142(3):625-35. doi: 10.1097/AOG.0000000000005279

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association between seasonal influenza vaccination and miscarriage using data from an ongoing, prospective cohort study.

METHODS: We analyzed 2013-2022 data from PRESTO (Pregnancy Study Online), a prospective prepregnancy cohort study of female pregnancy planners and their male partners in the United States and Canada. Female participants completed a baseline questionnaire and then follow-up questionnaires every 8 weeks until pregnancy, during early and late pregnancy, and during the postpartum period. Vaccine information was self-reported on all questionnaires. Miscarriage was identified from self-reported information during follow-up. Male partners were invited to complete a baseline questionnaire only. We used Cox proportional hazard models to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI for the association between vaccination less than 3 months before pregnancy detection through the 19th week of pregnancy and miscarriage, with gestational weeks as the time scale. We modeled vaccination as a time-varying exposure and used propensity-score fine stratification to control for confounding from seasonal and female partner factors.

RESULTS: Of 6,946 pregnancies, 23.3% of female partners reported exposure to influenza vaccine before or during pregnancy: 3.2% during pregnancy (gestational age 4-19 weeks) and 20.1% during the 3 months before pregnancy detection. The miscarriage rate was 16.2% in unvaccinated and 17.0% among vaccinated participants. Compared with no vaccine exposure, influenza vaccination was not associated with increased rate of miscarriage when administered before (HR 0.99, 95% CI 0.81-1.20) or during (HR 0.83, 95% CI 0.47-1.47) pregnancy. Of the 1,135 couples with male partner vaccination data available, 10.8% reported vaccination less than 3 months before pregnancy. The HR for the association between male partner vaccination and miscarriage was 1.17 (95% CI 0.73-1.90).

CONCLUSION: Influenza vaccination before or during pregnancy was not associated with miscarriage.

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