Fastenau J, Rozjabek H, Qin S, McLeod L, Nelson L, Ma J, Harris N. Psychometric evaluation of the DAILY EATS questionnaire in individuals living with obesity. J Patient Rep Outcomes. 2020 Nov 23;4(1):99. doi: 10.1186/s41687-020-00259-w

BACKGROUND: Physiological and behavioral factors including hunger, satiety, food intake, and cravings are health determinants contributing to obesity. Patient-reported outcome (PRO) measures focused on eating-related factors provide insight into the relationships between food choice and quantity, weight change, and weight-loss treatment for individuals living with obesity. The DAILY EATS is a novel 5-item, patient-reported measure evaluating key eating-related factors (Worst and Average Hunger, Appetite, Cravings, and Satiety).

METHODS: Psychometric analyses, consistent with regulatory standards, were conducted to evaluate the DAILY EATS using data from two randomized trials that included individuals with severe obesity without diabetes (NCT03486392) and with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes (NCT03586830). Additional measures included Patient Global Impression of Status (PGIS) and Patient Global Impression of Change items, Impact of Weight on Quality of Life-Lite, Ease of Weight Management, and Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System Physical Function Short Form 8b and 10a. The reliability, validity, and responsiveness of the DAILY EATS were assessed, and a scoring algorithm and thresholds to interpret meaningful score changes were developed.

RESULTS: Item-level analyses of the DAILY EATS supported computation of an Eating Drivers Index (EDI), comprising the related items Worst Hunger, Appetite, and Cravings. Internal consistency (Cronbach's coefficient alphas ≥0.80) and test-retest reliability (coefficients > 0.7) of the EDI were robust. Construct validity correlation patterns with other PRO measures were as hypothesized, with moderate to strong significant correlations between the EDI and PGIS-Hunger (0.30 ≤ r ≤ 0.68), PGIS-Cravings (0.33 ≤ r ≤ 0.77) and PGIS-Appetite (0.52 ≤ r ≤ 0.77). Anchor- and distribution-based analyses support reductions ranging from 1.6 to 2.1 as responder thresholds for the EDI, representing meaningful within-person improvement.

CONCLUSIONS: The DAILY EATS individual items and the composite EDI are reliable, sensitive, and valid in evaluating the concepts of hunger, appetite, and cravings for use in individuals with severe obesity with or without type 2 diabetes.

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