Colosia AD, Palencia R, Khan S. Prevalence of hypertension and/or obesity in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus in Asia: a systematic literature review. Poster presented at the 2012 ISPOR 15th Annual European Congress; November 2012. Berlin, Germany. [abstract] Value Health. 2012 Nov; 15(7):A661.

Objectives: Hypertension and obesity are associated with long-term complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A systematic literature review assessed the prevalence of these comorbidities in adults with T2DM in Asia.

Methods: Electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library) were searched for publications related to T2DM plus hypertension and/or obesity (English, 2001-2011). Bibliographies of included studies were also examined.

Results: Of 2303 abstracts identified, 38 observational studies presented relevant data across 14 countries/regions in Asia. Prevalence rates reported here are for adults with T2DM. In China, hypertension prevalence was 49.9%-60.6% when hypertension was defined by blood pressure cutpoints of =140/90 mmHg and/or use of antihypertensive medicine, whereas the prevalence was 74.7%-76.5% when blood pressure cutpoints were reduced to =130/85. A study in Israel using cutpoints of =140/90, =130/85, and =130/80 mmHg found hypertension prevalence rates of 60.2%, 76.5%, and 85.8%, respectively. In studies reporting prevalence by a single hypertension definition, the prevalence rates ranged from 61.0% to 78.1% when the cutpoints were =130/80 or =130/85 mmHg and 13.6% to 78.4% when the cutpoints were =140/90 mmHg. Obesity prevalence data were limited. Cutpoints for defining obesity by body mass index (BMI) or waist circumference (WC) varied among the studies. The obesity prevalence rates by BMI were: Israel, 20.1%; Japan, 33.9%; Qatar, 53.8%; Taiwan, 38%-52.7%; Jordan, 58.6%; Saudi Arabia, 83.4%; Iran, 85.5%; and by WC were: Japan, 24.3%-27.0%; South Korea, 37.2%; Pakistan, 61.5%; India, 67%. Few studies reported comorbidity of both hypertension and obesity, with varying definitions of each comorbidity. The prevalence of hypertension with obesity was: Saudi Arabia, 10.7%; Japan, 18.0%-20.6%; Jordan, 76.6%; Israel, 69.7%-93.3%.

Conclusions: In Asians, hypertension and obesity, separately or together, are common comorbidities of T2DM. Accurate, consistent reporting of their prevalence will help quantify efforts needed to manage these comorbidities and their long-term health and cost consequences.

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