Sola-Munoz S, Jorge M, Jimenez-Fabrega X, Jimenez-Delgado S, Azeli Y, Marsal JR, Jordan S, Mauri J, Jacob J. Prehospital stratification and prioritisation of non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome patients (NSTEACS): the MARIACHI scale. Intern Emerg Med. 2023 Aug 2;18(5):1317-27. doi: 10.1007/s11739-023-03274-z

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to develop and validate a risk scale (MARIACHI) for patients classified as non-ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTEACS) in a prehospital setting with the ability to identify patients at an increased risk of mortality at an early stage.

METHODS: A retrospective observational study conducted in Catalonia over two periods: 2015-2017 (development and internal validation cohort) and Aug 2018-Jan 2019 (external validation cohort). We included patients classified as prehospital NSTEACS, assisted by an advanced life support unit and requiring hospital admission. The primary outcome was in-hospital mortality. Cohorts were compared using logistic regression and a predictive model was created using bootstrapping techniques.

RESULTS: The development and internal validation cohort included 519 patients. The model is composed of five variables associated with hospital mortality: age, systolic blood pressure, heart rate > 95 bpm, Killip-Kimball III-IV and ST depression ≥ 0.5 mm. The model showed good overall performance (Brier = 0.043) and consistency in discrimination (AUC 0.88, 95% CI 0.83-0.92) and calibration (slope = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.93). We included 1316 patients for the external validation sample. There was no difference in discrimination (AUC 0.83, 95% CI 0.78-0.87; DeLong Test p = 0.071), but there was in calibration (p < 0.001), so it was recalibrated. The finally model obtained was stratified and scored into three groups according to the predicted risk of patient in-hospital mortality: low risk: < 1% (-8 to 0 points), moderate risk: 1-5% (+ 1 to + 5 points) and high risk: > 5% (6-12 points).

CONCLUSION: The MARIACHI scale showed correct discrimination and calibration to predict high-risk NSTEACS. Identification of high-risk patients may help with treatment and low referral decisions at the prehospital level.

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