Ribera A, Ferreira-Gonzalez I, Marsal JR, Oristrell G, Faixedas MT, Rosas A, Tizon-Marcos H, Rojas S, Labata C, Cardenas M, Homs S, Tomas-Querol C, Garcia-Picart J, Gomez-Hospital JA, Pijoan JI, Masotti M, Mauri J, Garcia Dorado D, VESA Study and Codi IAM Investigators. Persistence with dual antiplatelet therapy after percutaneous coronary intervention for ST-segment elevation acute coronary syndrome: a population-based cohort study in Catalonia (Spain). BMJ Open. 2019 Jul 23;9(7):e028114. doi: 10.1136/bmjopen-2018-028114

OBJECTIVES: Guidelines recommending 12-month dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome (STEACS) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) were published in year 2012. We aimed to describe the influence of guideline implementation on the trend in 12-month persistence with DAPT between 2010 and 2015 and to evaluate its relationship with DAPT duration regimens recommended at discharge from PCI hospitals.

DESIGN: Observational study based on region-wide registry data linked to pharmacy billing data for DAPT follow-up.

SETTING: All PCI hospitals (10) belonging to the acute myocardial infarction (AMI) code network in Catalonia (Spain).

PARTICIPANTS: 10 711 STEACS patients undergoing PCI between 2010 and 2015 were followed up.

PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Primary outcome was 12-month persistence with DAPT. Calendar year quarter, publication of guidelines, DAPT duration regimen recommended in the hospital discharge report, baseline patient characteristics and significant interactions were included in mixed-effects logistic regression based interrupted time-series models.

The proportion of patients on-DAPT at 12 months increased from 58% (56-60) in 2010 to 73% (71-75) in 2015. The rate of 12-month persistence with DAPT significantly increased after the publication of clinical guidelines with a time lag of 1 year (OR=1.20; 95% CI 1.11 to 1.30). A higher risk profile, more extensive and complex coronary disease, use of drug-eluting stents (OR=1.90; 95% CI 1.50 to 2.40) and a 12-month DAPT regimen recommendation at discharge from the PCI hospital (OR=5.76; 95% CI 3.26 to 10.2) were associated with 12-month persistence.

CONCLUSION: Persistence with 12-month DAPT has increased since publication of clinical guidelines. Even though most patients were discharged on DAPT, only 73% with potential indication were on-DAPT 12 months after PCI. A guideline-based recommendation at PCI hospital discharge was highly associated with full persistence with DAPT. Establishing evidence-based, common prescribing criteria across hospitals in the AMI-network would favour adherence and reduce variability.

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