Wilson M, Lucas A, Mendes D, Vyse A, Mikudina B, Czudek C, Ellsbury GF, Perdrizet J. Estimating the cost-effectiveness of switching to higher-valency pediatric pneumococcal conjugate vaccines in the United Kingdom. Vaccines (Basel). 2023 Jun 28;11(7):1168. doi: 10.3390/vaccines11071168

Currently, the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) is administered under a 1+1 (1 primary dose) pediatric schedule in the United Kingdom (UK). Higher-valency PCVs, 15-valent PCV (PCV15), or 20-valent PCV (PCV20) might be considered to expand serotype coverage. We evaluated the cost-effectiveness of PCV20 or PCV15 using either a 2+1 (2 primary doses) or 1+1 schedule for pediatric immunization in the UK. Using a dynamic transmission model, we simulated future disease incidence and costs under PCV13 1+1, PCV20 2+1, PCV20 1+1, PCV15 2+1, and PCV15 1+1 schedules from the UK National Health Service perspective. We prospectively estimated disease cases, direct costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), and incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. Scenario analyses were performed to estimate the impact of model assumptions and parameter uncertainty. Over a five-year period, PCV20 2+1 averted the most disease cases and gained the most additional QALYs. PCV20 2+1 and 1+1 were dominant (cost-saving and more QALYs gained) compared with PCV15 (2+1 or 1+1) and PCV13 1+1. PCV20 2+1 was cost-effective (GBP 8110/QALY) compared with PCV20 1+1. PCV20 was found cost-saving compared with PCV13 1+1, and PCV20 2+1 was cost-effective compared with PCV20 1+1. Policymakers should consider the reduction in disease cases with PCV20, which may offset vaccination costs.

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