Wesselink AK, Lovett SM, Weinberg J, Geller RJ, Wang TR, Regan AK, Willis MD, Perkins RB, Yland JJ, Koenig MR, Rothman KJ, Hatch EE, Wise LA. COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual cycle characteristics: a prospective cohort study. Vaccine. 2023 Jun 29;41(29):4327-34. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2023.06.012

We prospectively examined the association between COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual cycle characteristics in an internet-based prospective cohort study. We included a sample of 1,137 participants who enrolled in Pregnancy Study Online (PRESTO), a preconception cohort study of couples trying to conceive, during January 2021-August 2022. Eligible participants were aged 21-45 years, United States or Canadian residents, and trying to conceive without fertility treatment. At baseline and every 8 weeks for up to 12 months, participants completed questionnaires on which they provided information on COVID-19 vaccination and menstrual cycle characteristics, including cycle regularity, cycle length, bleed length, heaviness of bleed, and menstrual pain. We fit generalized estimating equation (GEE) models with a log link function and Poisson distribution to estimate the adjusted risk ratio (RR) for irregular cycles associated with COVID-19 vaccination. We used linear regression with GEE to estimate adjusted mean differences in menstrual cycle length associated with COVID-19 vaccination. We adjusted for sociodemographic, lifestyle, medical and reproductive factors. Participants had 1.1 day longer menstrual cycles after receiving the first dose of COVID-19 vaccine (95 % CI: 0.4, 1.9) and 1.3 day longer cycles after receiving the second dose (95 % CI: 0.2, 2.5). Associations were attenuated at the second cycle post-vaccination. We did not observe strong associations between COVID-19 vaccination and cycle regularity, bleed length, heaviness of bleed, or menstrual pain. In conclusion, COVID-19 vaccination was associated with a ∼1 day temporary increase in menstrual cycle length, but was not appreciably associated with other menstrual cycle characteristics.

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