Robinson O, Martinez D, Aurrekoetxea JJ, Estarlich M, Somoano AF, Iniguez C, Santa-Marina L, Tardon A, Torrent M, Sunyer J, Valvi D, Vrijheid M. The association between passive and active tobacco smoke exposure and child weight status among Spanish children. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Aug;24(8):1767-77. doi: 10.1002/oby.21558

OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of passive and active tobacco smoke exposure, both pre- and postnatally, on child body mass index (BMI) and overweight.

METHODS: Pregnant women were enrolled into the Spanish INMA prospective birth cohort during 1997 to 2008. Tobacco smoke exposure was assessed by questionnaire and corroborated by pre- and postnatal cotinine measurements. Children were followed up until 4 years in newer subcohorts (N = 1866) and until 14 years in one older subcohort (N = 427). Child age- and sex-specific BMI Z-scores were calculated, and generalized estimating equations were used to model their relationship with repeated measures of tobacco smoke exposure.

Associations between prenatal passive exposure to tobacco smoke (adjusted β = 0.15, 95% CI: 0.05-0.25) and active maternal smoking (adjusted β = 0.20, 95% CI: 0.08-0.33) and child zBMI up to 4 years were observed. Stronger associations were observed in the older subcohort between both prenatal and child passive smoke exposure and zBMI up to 14 years.

CONCLUSIONS: Evidence for an effect of both passive and maternal active smoking on child postnatal growth has been provided. Although residual confounding cannot be completely ruled out, associations were robust to adjustment for a range of lifestyle factors.

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