Fortuny J, Kogevinas M, Garcia-Closas M, Real FX, Tardon A, Garcia-Closas R, Serra C, Carrato A, Lloreta J, Rothman N, Villanueva C, Dosemeci M, Malats N, Silverman D. Use of analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, genetic predisposition, and bladder cancer risk in Spain. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2006 Sep;15(9):1696-702.


BACKGROUND: We assessed use of nonaspirin nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), aspirin, paracetamol (acetaminophen), phenacetin, and metamizol (dipyrone) and risk of bladder cancer and their interaction with polymorphisms in drug-metabolizing genes.

METHODS: We analyzed personal interview data from 958 incident bladder cancer cases and 1,029 hospital controls from a multicenter case-control study in Spain. A drug matrix was developed to estimate cumulative lifetime dose of active ingredients. Polymorphisms in GSTP1, SULT1A1, CYP2E1, CYP2C9, and NAT2 were examined.

RESULTS: A significant reduction in bladder cancer risk [adjusted odds ratio (OR), 0.4; 95% confidence interval (95% CI), 0.2-0.9] was observed for regular users of nonaspirin NSAIDs compared with never users. Regular users of aspirin experienced no reduction in risk (OR, 1.0; 95% CI, 0.7-1.5). Regular users of paracetamol had no overall increased risk of bladder cancer (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.4-1.3), but our data suggested a qualitative interaction with the GSTP1 I105V genotype. Subjects with at least one copy of the 359L or 144C variant alleles in the NSAID-metabolizing gene CYP2C9 had a slightly decreased risk of bladder cancer (OR, 0.8; 95% CI, 0.7-1.0; P = 0.037); however, having at least one copy of the 359L or 144C variant alleles did not significantly modify the protective effect of nonaspirin NSAID use.

CONCLUSION:
Regular use of nonaspirin NSAIDs was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer, which was not modified by polymorphisms in the NSAID-metabolizing gene CYP2C9. We found no evidence of an overall effect for paracetamol or aspirin use.

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