Jick H, Hannan MT, Stergachis A, Heidrich F, Perera DR, Rothman KJ. Vaginal spermicides and gonorrhea. JAMA. 1982 Jan 1;248(13):1619-21.

All positive cultures for neisseria gonorrhoeae recorded from Dec 20, 1978, through Dec 31, 1980, for women born between 1940 and 1960 were identified among members of Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, and rates of gonorrhea were calculated for recent oral contraceptive users, recent vaginal spermicide users, and women with surgical sterilization. The risk ratio (RR) estimate, based on the included population, for spermicide users compared with all others was 0.23 (90% confidence interval [Cl], 0.10, 0.50). When women with positive cultures for N gonorrhoeae were compared with women with negative cultures, the RR estimate comparing spermicide users with all others was 0.13 (90% Cl, 0.05, 0.34). The results are consistent with the protective effect of vaginal spermicides against gonorrhea.

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