Goyal RK, Chen H, Abughosh SM, Holmes HM, Candrilli SD, Johnson ML. Overall survival associated with CDK4/6 inhibitors in patients with HR+/HER2- metastatic breast cancer in the United States: a SEER-Medicare population-based study. Cancer. 2023 Feb 9. doi: 10.1002/cncr.34675

BACKGROUND: Evidence on overall survival (OS) with cyclin-dependent kinase 4 and 6 (CDK4/6) inhibitors is generally limited to data from clinical trials or a few observational studies with limited generalizability to Medicare population. The aim of this study was to determine OS benefits associated with CDK4/6 inhibitors in older Medicare patients with hormone receptor (HR)-positive and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 overexpressing (HER2-) metastatic breast cancer (MBC).

METHODS: In a retrospective cohort design, female patients aged ≥65 years with diagnosis of HR+/HER2- MBC from 2015 to 2017 who initiated first-line systemic therapy within 12 months of MBC diagnosis were selected from the Survey Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. The effect of treatment type (endocrine therapy [ET]+CDK4/6 inhibitor vs. ET alone) on OS was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier methods and multivariable Cox regression models. Adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) and 95% CIs were estimated.

RESULTS: A total of 630 eligible patients were identified (169 patients treated with ET+CDK4/6 inhibitor and 461 patients treated with ET alone). In the Kaplan-Meier analysis, OS rate at 3 years after first-line treatment initiation was 73.0% for ET+CDK4/6 inhibitor versus 49.1% for ET alone (log-rank p < .0001). In Cox regression analysis, first-line ET+CDK4/6 inhibitor therapy was associated with 41% lower rate of mortality versus ET alone (aHR, 0.590; 95% CI, 0.423-0.823).

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this real-world study demonstrate significant OS benefit associated with ET+CDK4/6 inhibitor therapy over ET alone in an older Medicare population of patients with HR+/HER2- MBC, largely consistent with the evidence from clinical trials.

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