Uddin Khan S, Atanasova KR, Krueger WS, Ramirez A, Gray GC. Epidemiology, geographical distribution, and economic consequences of swine zoonoses: a narrative review. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2013 Dec;2(12):e92. doi: 10.1038/emi.2013.87.

We sought to review the epidemiology, international geographical distribution, and economic consequences of selected swine zoonoses. We performed literature searches in two stages. First, we identified the zoonotic pathogens associated with swine. Second, we identified specific swine-associated zoonotic pathogen reports for those pathogens from January 1980 to October 2012. Swine-associated emerging diseases were more prevalent in the countries of North America, South America, and Europe. Multiple factors were associated with the increase of swine zoonoses in humans including: the density of pigs, poor water sources and environmental conditions for swine husbandry, the transmissibility of the pathogen, occupational exposure to pigs, poor human sanitation, and personal hygiene. Swine zoonoses often lead to severe economic consequences related to the threat of novel pathogens to humans, drop in public demand for pork, forced culling of swine herds, and international trade sanctions. Due to the complexity of swine-associated pathogen ecology, designing effective interventions for early detection of disease, their prevention, and mitigation requires an interdisciplinary collaborative 'One Health' approach from veterinarians, environmental and public health professionals, and the swine industry.


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