Abstract: To compare the effectiveness of frontline rituximab-chemotherapy regimens in clinical practice, we examined outcomes for patients with low-grade, stage III/IV follicular lymphoma receiving rituximab with cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone (R-CHOP); rituximab with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and prednisone (R-CVP); or rituximab with a fludarabine-based regimen (R-Flu) as frontline therapy. In total, 611 patients meeting these criteria were identified in the National LymphoCare Study: 47% receiving R-CHOP (n=287), 31% receiving R-CVP (n=187) and 22% receiving R-Flu (n=137). Overall response rates were high (R-CVP 87%, R-CHOP 93%, R-Flu 94%; p=0.017). Median follow-up was 7.4 years. R-CVP was associated with lower 5-year overall survival (R-CVP 76%, R-CHOP 86%, R-Flu 86%; p=0.021) and progression-free survival (R-CVP 49%, R-CHOP 58%, R-Flu 64%; p=0.029). There were no significant differences in survival in Cox models adjusted for baseline clinical factors, practice region/setting and post-treatment rituximab maintenance/observation.